The pulp of the tooth is supplied with nerve tissue as well as veins and nerves. The pulp can be infected by bacterial invasion. Dental decay can penetrate through the external hard tissue known as enamel, through the next layer known as dentin, then into the pulp. The decay has bacteria which secretes toxin which are pathological to the pulpal tissue causing an irreversible infection in the tooth.
Once the nerve becomes infected, the tooth must be either treated with root canal therapy or extracted. Left untreated, the infection can spread into the adjacent bone around the tooth, resulting in a dental abscess and cyst. Trauma can also cause the nerve to become necrotic as the blood supply becomes disrupted, a tooth requiring root canal therapy may be mild. The symptoms of a tooth requiring root canal therapy can be mild to severe swelling, redness, heat, and elevated temperature.
Emergency Root Canal Therapy Procedures
The goal of root canal therapy is to remove the infected pulp from the tooth with minimal removal of tooth structure, allowing the tooth to remain as structurally intact as possible. A dental drill, or hand piece, is used to open the canal of the tooth. Endodontic files of increasing diameter are then used to remove and clean the canals. When the canals are clean and dry, the canals can be filled with gutta-percha rubber, which is the material most commonly used at this time. Sometimes a crown is required after endodontic therapy for additional strength.